Advanced Procmon Part 2 – Filtering inclusions

In part 1 I showed some of the exclusions I would typically add to procmon’s filters to help reduce the volume of data you have to sift through. Having been working on a customer site last week where I had to try to find the cause of a disappearing “My Documents” folder, I think that it’s time to finally write part 2 so here goes.

What I had been asked to troubleshoot was why the hidden attribute on the user’s documents folder, which was being redirected, to a folder on the user’s H: drive (a DFS share, not that this is relevant other than it is not a local folder), was being set during a user’s XenApp session which made it rather difficult for them to work.

The first thing to check was what was doing the folder redirection which is where the first procmon filters were used. I spend a lot of time trying to trace where a Windows application or the Operating System itself stores a particular setting so that I can then automate its setting in someway. When it boils down to it, a setting is almost always going to be either stored in the registry or in a file which means we can use procmon to filter on the setting of the registry value or the writing of a file.

For example, let’s use procmon to see where Notepad (one of my favourite and most used apps) stores the font if you change it. I set my include filters as shown below – note that the excludes don’t really matter at this point:

procmon notepad filters

I then change the font to “Candara” in the Format->Font menu and click “OK”

notepad candara font

What we notice is that procmon doesn’t show anything after I click “OK” so have I got the filters wrong or is it saving it somewhere else (a network database for instance)? No, what we’re seeing is the result of a developer who has decided that changed settings will only get written back when the application exits normally rather than as soon as they are changed. It’s more efficient this way but does mean that changed settings won’t get written back if the application exits abnormally like if it crashes or it is terminated via task manager.

Note that the “WriteFile” operation isn’t always listed in the drop down list so if this is the case, select “IRP_MJ_WRITE” instead.

So after I exit notepad, procmon then shows me the following where I’ve highlighted the line where we can see the font being set to what I picked previously.

notepad font change

And there we have it – how to find where an application/process stores settings if it does persist them in a human readable form of course – it might encrypt them or store them as Unicode although the latter is relatively easy to spot, although not search for, as you’ll see zero byte padding for every character if you look at the data in regedit as shown below for a value in my mail profile.

unicode string data

What you might have to contend with is an application, like a Microsoft Office application for instance, writing a large number of settings in one go, rather than just the one you changed. What I do here, when the entry is a text entity like a folder name or some arbitrary string data, is to specify a string that is unlikely to be used anywhere else so I can either search for it in procmon or in the registry or file system directly. For instance last week I needed to know where Excel 2013 stored the folder that you specify in the “At startup, open all files in” setting in the Advanced->General options so I specified it as “H:\Elephant” and went on an elephant hunt (ok, search) …

So back to the tale of the hiding of the Documents folder. Using the above technique and because I know that redirected folder settings are written to “HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\User Shell Folders” (and potentially “Shell Folders” in the same key but the former takes priority if the value exists in both keys), I set the procmon filters to the following in an admin session on my customer’s test XenApp server:

shell folders filter

At this point I didn’t know what the process was that was setting it so I didn’t filter on a specific process. Note that if multiple users had logged on during the procmon trace then it may have confused matters so you can filter on the session id too within procmon should you deem it necessary. You can right-click on the column headers in procmon, select “Select Columns” and then add columns like session id and user name although be careful if filtering on the latter as it may be a system process doing what you’re investigating rather than one running as that user.

procmon columns

This procmon trace told me that it was a process called EMUser.exe that was setting the “Personal” (Documents/My Documents) registry value which is part of the AppSense Environment Manager product. I checked the AppSense configuration and it was indeed setting the redirection but it wasn’t changing the attributes in any way that I could see.

The next part of the puzzle is to figure what I needed to filter on to be able to spot the changing of the attributes to hidden. This I did with the help of the good old attrib utility by creating a test folder and then running attrib to set and unset the hidden attribute on this folder so I could see what procmon reported.

attrib filter

Note my use of “echo %time%” – it can be a good idea to know what time you performed an operation in case there are many entries in a trace – I sometimes wait for the taskbar clock to hit an exact minute before I click something I want to trace the consequences of so I can search for that time in the log (and then exclude lines before that point if necessary by right clicking on that line and selecting “Exclude Events Before”).

So what we learn from the above is that when the hidden attribute is set, it will be the operation “SetBasicInformationFile” with “FileAttributes” in the “Detail” column containing the letter “H” since we see “HSDN” when I set hidden and system and we don’t see “H” when I subsequently remove the hidden attribute.

Back on the trail of the hidden documents folder, my filters became thus:

hidden attribute setting filter

If “SetBasicInformationFile” is not present in the drop down list then pick “IRP_MJ_SET_INFORMATION” instead.

I then logged on to the XenApp server with my test user account and very quickly noticed that the Documents folder was not visible so I stopped the trace at this point and found that it was Lync.exe (Communicator) that had set the hidden attribute. Next I reset the filter and just filtered on Lync.exe so I could try and figure out what Lync was doing just before it decided to set the hidden attribute. What I found was that is was querying the “Cache” value in the afore mentioned “User Shell Folders” key. Looking at this value I noticed that it too was set to “H:\Documents” which didn’t feel right given that it is normally set to the temporary internet files folder in the user’s local profile.

This is where you have to try and second guess developers or at least come up with a theory and then prove or disprove it. My theory was that Lync was querying what the Cache folder was set to, since it needed to use it, but had decided that it was a system folder that a user shouldn’t see so set it to hidden.

So what I did to try and both prove and fix this was to change the AppSense configuration to redirect the cache folder back to the temporary internet files folder in the user’s local profile (so “%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files”). I did this and the documents folder no longer became hidden.

Thank you procmon – it would have been very difficult without you!

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Author: guyrleech

I wrote my first (Basic) program in 1980, was a Unix developer after graduation from Manchester University and then became a consultant, initially with Citrix WinFrame, in 1995 and later into Terminal Server/Services and more recently virtualisation, being awarded the VMware vExpert status in 2009 and 2010. I have also had various stints in Technical Pre-Sales, Support and R&D. I work as a Senior Technical Consultant for HCL, live in West Yorkshire, England; have a wife, three children and three dogs and am a keen competitive runner when not injured.

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